Trafford Publishing 
Bloomington , Indiana , USA

Book 2005


Numbers in brackets refer to numbering on: 

A.     Introduction

 1    Scope and Aim         
 5    Prologue : Article from 1993 

 B.     Cooling of Europe 

7      Arctic Europe - winter of 1939/40 (2_11)          
23    West Wind lost - Europe cut off (2_12)          
37    War at sea 1939 -  Facts and events (2_13)          
45    Sea Mines September - December 1939 (2_14)          
59    Bombs and depth charges at sea (2_15)          
69    Cooling of North Sea - 1939 (2_16)          
87    Baltic Sea paved way for extreme winter (2_17)          
97    Cyclones and shells - War at sea events (2_21)          
107   Resultant Rain due to War - 1939 (2_31)          
117   USA winter weather 1939/40 caused by war 2_32)          
123   War in China  - 1939 (2_33)          
127   Russia invades Finland, December 1939 (2_41)          
141   Turkey Earth Quake - 27 December 1939 (2_51)          
149   Mediterranean - Strange weather - winter 1939/40 (2_52) 

C.     Three European winters: 1939 – 42 

153   Occupation of Norway - Return of Ice Age (3_11)          
173   Naval activities in Baltic Sea 1941 (3_21)            
181   Winter weather - Cold axis 1941/42 (3_22)          
193   Stockholm’s arctic winter of 1942 (3_23)          
199   Three year ice package, 1939-1942 (3_31)  

D.    Global sea war and climate changes 

211   Oceans in times of war: 1942 to 1945  (4_11)          
225   Ocean System affected (4_12)          
245   Extreme winter of 1946/47 in Europe (4_21)  

E.     Severe Warming 1918 

251   Europe Weather-Influence by WWI (5_11)
263   Spitsbergen heats up - Big Warming 1918 (5_12)
275   WWI warms up climate at Spitsbergen? (5_13)
285   Sea Mines Warfare 1914 - 1918 (5_14)
291   Warming of Europe, Greening of Greenland (5_15) 

F.      Climate changes twice 

303   Two wars at sea - Two climate shifts (6_11)          
311   Epilogue, Article from 1994          

G.  313   References   

G. References

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 Schokalsky, J.; ‚Recent Russian researches in the Arctic Sea and the in mountains of Central Asia’, in: The Scottish Geographicial Magazine, Vol. 52, No.2,  March 1936,  p. 73-84.

 Schmidt, Rudi; ‘Achtung – Torpedos los! Der strategische und operative Einsatz des Kampfgeschwaders 26, Löwengeschwader, Das Torpedogeschwader der deutschen Luftwaffe im Zweiten Welkrieg’,  Bernard und Graefe Verlag,  1991.

 Schwabe, G.H.; ‚Kleinere Mitteilungen, Klimatologische Witterungs-schilderungen’, in: Annalen der Hydrographie und Maritimen Meteorologie, 1940,  p. 217-220.

 Seewarte:  refers to the daily weather charts of the  “Deutsche Seewarte, Abteilung: Wetterdienst”, with detailed weather observation and weather forecast and weather analysis, section “Witterungsübersicht”. 

 Slader, John; ‘The Fourth Service’ – Merchantmen at war 1939-45’, Corfe Mullen, Dorset, 1995.

 Smith, Thomas; R. Reynolds; C Ropelewski; ‘Optimal Averaging of Seasonal Sea Surface temperatures and Associated Confidence Intervals (1860-1989)’, in: Journal of Climate, 1994, pp. 949-964.

 Statens Meteorologisk-Hydrografiska Anstalt, ‚Arsbok’, ‚Månadsöversikt över Vänderlek och Vattentillgång’,  Argang 21-26, 1939 –1945,  Stockholm.

 Stellmacher, R. and Tiesel R.; ‚Über die Strenge der mitteleuropäischen Winter der letzten 220 Jahre – eine statistische Untersuchung’, Z. Meteorol. 39 (1989) 1,  p.56-59.

 Struebing, Klaus; ‚Meereisbeobachtungen in den deutschen  Kuesten-gebieten’, in:  DGM-Mitteilungen,  Heft 1-2, 1997,  p. 69-72.

 Svendrup, H.U.; ‘Oceanography for Meteorologists’, New York, 1942.

 Taffrail; Captain Taprell Dorling; ‚Swept Channels’, London 1938 (3rd ed).

 Thomas, David A.; ‘The Atlantic Star  1939-45’, London, 1990.

 Tomezaqk, G. und Goedecke, E.; ‚Die thermische Schichtung der Nordsee’, Publisher: Deutsches Hydrographisches Insitut, Hamburg, 1964

 Van Dyke, Carl; ‚The Soviet Invasion of Finland 1939-40’,  London, 1997.

Wagner, Arthur; ‚Klimaaenderungen und Klimaschwankungen’, Braunschweig,  1940.

 Weickmann, L.; ‚Die Erwaermung der Arktis’, Berlin, 1942.

 Wexler, H. (Dust), ‚On the effects of volcanic dust on insulation and weather’, in: Bulletin American Meteorological Society, Vol. 32, No. 1, January 1951,  p. 10-15.

 Wexler, H. (Spread); ‘Spread of the Krakatoa Volcanic Dust Cloud as related to high-level circulation’, in: Bulletin American Meteorological Society, Vol. 32, No. 2,  February 1951, pp. 48-52.

 Winton, John; ‘Convoy – The defense of sea trade 1890-1990’, London 1983.

 Woodward, David; ‘The Russians at Sea’, London, 1965.

World Climate Research Programme (Publisher), WOCE, December 1991.

 Witterungsbericht; ‘Deutscher Witterungsbericht’, until 1939 (including) in: Zeitschrift „Wirtschaft und Statistik“, by Statistisches Reichsamt (publisher), since 1940 as ‚Deutscher Witterungsbericht 1940-1944’, Deutscher Wetterdienst in der US-Zone, Bad Kissingen, 1948.

 Wright, Peter B.; ‘Problems in the use of ship observations for the study of interdecadal Climate change’, Monthly Weather Review, Vol. 114, 1986, pp. 1028-1034.

 Yalciner, Ahmet Cevdet;  ‘The Source Mechanism of 1939 Black

Sea Tsunami’,  2004 (search www:  "OS13A", Ocean Science, OS13A CC: 520 F Monday 1330h, Tsunamis, Presiding:E.  Pelinovsky

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