Book 2005 
Trafford Publishing - Bloomington, Indiana, USA.



A Scientific Assessment


A.     Introduction 

     Cooling of Europe 
7     Arctic Europe - winter of 1939/40 (2_11)          
23    West Wind lost - Europe cut off (2_12)          
37    War at sea 1939 -  Facts and events (2_13)          
45    Sea Mines September - December 1939 (2_14)          
59    Bombs and depth charges at sea (2_15)          
69    Cooling of North Sea - 1939 (2_16)          
87    Baltic Sea paved way for extreme winter (2_17)          
97    Cyclones and shells - War at sea events (2_21)          
107   Resultant Rain due to War - 1939 (2_31)          

117   USA winter weather 1939/40 caused by war 2_32)          
123   War in China  - 1939 (2_33)    
127   Russia invades Finland, December 1939 2_41)
Turkey Earth Quake - 27 December 1939 (2_51)          
   Mediterranean - Strange weather - winter 1939/40 2_52) 
     Three European winters: 1939 – 42 
153   Occupation of Norway - Return of Ice Age (3_11)          
173   Naval activities in Baltic Sea 1941 (3_21)            
181   Winter weather - Cold axis 1941/42 (3_22)          
193   Stockholm’s arctic winter of 1942 (3_23)          
199   Three year ice package, 1939-1942 (3_31) 
D.    Global sea war and climate changes
211   Oceans in times of war: 1942 to 1945  (4_11)   

225   Ocean System affected (4_12)          
245   Extreme winter of 1946/47 in Europe (4_21) 

E.     Severe Warming 1918 
251   Europe Weather-Influence by WWI (5_11)
263   Spitsbergen heats up - Big Warming 1918 (5_12)
275   WWI warms up climate at Spitsbergen? (5_13)
285   Sea Mines Warfare 1914 - 1918 (5_14)
   Warming of Europe, Greening of Greenland (5_15) 
F.      Climate changes twice 
303   Two wars at sea - Two climate shifts (6_11)          
311   Epilogue, Article from 1994   
G. 313 References













The two World Wars correlate strong with the two most
significant AMO trend changes!

The PDO trend change correlates most pronounced
only in Second World War!

What did naval warfare contribute?

AMO change due to naval war?

Many decades have passed!

It is high time to answer the question!

 Click image to enlarge
      Published 15. April 2014

PDO change due to Second Wolrd War?

 READ more about the possible impact of naval war during First World War 

Record North Atlantic sea ice in 
summer 1917

contributing to the biggest climatic shift last century? 
And what caused this extraordinary event?
Temporarily posted here on 24th March 2014

 Never has such a high sea ice extent been observed in the North Atlantic as in summer 1917 (Fig.3). This exceptional case has never been investigated. Worst! Science seems not to have taken notice of it although thorough understanding of the event could possibly answer two important questions concerning climate change:

FIRST: Contribute the late icing and subsequent melting process to the sudden extraordinary warming at Svalbard and polar region (Fig.2 & 3) since winter 1918/19? 
Contribute naval war around Great Britain since 1914 to the exceptional icing?

Fig. 1; March 1917

Fig. 2; April 1917

Fig. 3; May 1917

Fig. 4; July 1917

Although air temperatures at Svalbard fell to all time record low in winter 1917, sea ice conditions in March were usual (Fig. 1). In general annual sea ice extent is highest in April, but succeeded average already in April, Fig. 2; rising to a level by end of May, which presumably has not happen for more than 200 years or longer, Fig.3. Even in late July the sea ice remained at a unusual high level, Fig.4. This late and extensive icing process may have had a pronounced impact and ocean water structure, from sea level to may hundred meter depth, which could have influenced the most significant climatic change in the 20th Century, namely the Arctic and Northern Hemisphere warming that started 18 months later in winter 1918/19 (Fig. 5, 6 & 7)..

Fig. 5; Svalbard , T°C, seasons & annual

Fig. 6; Annual T°C north of 70°; 1900-2013 + Fig.15

The sudden temperature increase at Svalbard commented the Norwegian scientist B.J. Birkeland in 1930: “In conclusion I would like to stress that the mean deviation (at Svalbard , Fig. 5 & 7) results in very high figures, probably the greatest yet known on earth”[1]. Indeed, in any way exceptional. The significance for the entire Polar region is shown in Fig. 6 (15 & 16) indicating the annual. According I. Schell (1956) such a situation may not have been duplicated earlier for 200 years and more (Fig. 8). It seems that the year 1866 is regarded as the most severe ice year (Fig. 9), but that relates to April while the case 1917 is in May/June.


Fig.7, Svalbard T°C annual means

Fig.8, I. Schell (1959) said:

Fig.9, Extreme sea ice years


What contributed naval war in Europe since August 1914? In summer 1916 the naval war machinery entered a new dimension. Sea mines, sub-marines, torpedoes, depth charges, aerial bombing, were produce an masse and used. Now almost 5-10 merchant ships sunk every day. All water from SW Wales/UK and North Sea travelled northwards with an impact on the sea surface and ocean structure down to many dozen meters, Fig. 10-13.





 Exactly at the same time the summer season got a sea ice extent never observed and 1 ½ years later the biggest temperature jump in the Northern North Atlantic and adjacent sector in the Arctic ever observed (Fig.14).  

  1. First QUESTION: What was the role and impact of navel war on the sea ice situation in the North Atlantic in summer 1917?
  2. Second QUESTION: What was the role and impact of summer sea ice on the ocean structure in the high North in winter 1918/19?
  3. Third QUESTION: What was the role and impact of naval war in Northern European waters on the Norwegian and West Spitsbergen Current and subsequently ocean structure between August 1914 and November 1918?  

The correlation between warming in the Arctic and naval war is evident. It seems time to investigate and prove it.   

Continue reading:

Fig. 14; Main area of warming between 1920 and 1939

Fig. 15 & Fig. 16

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The Arctic 
Warming Issue
Book 2009

Book 2012

"Failures of Meteorology? 
Unable to Prevent Climate Change and 
World Wars?"



15. April: AMO & PDO linked to War

12. March: Record NA sea ice 1917








September 1939 
30 daily weather maps 

Sea Ice Condition 
Baltic Sea WWII